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Al-Ghazali : Jesus Christ

mardi 24 juin 2014

honnêteté
honestidade
honesty
honneur
honra
honradez
honor
honour
retitude
retidão

JESUS CHRIST Jésus-Christ
Jesus Cristo
Jesus Christ
Jesús Cristo
Jesus
Jesús
Cristo
Christ
Ungido
Ointed
is the Touch-Stone of character, the Master of all spiritual leaders and the one L'Un
hen
hén
Uno
the One
supreme and infallible Judge who can pronounce an unerring verdict concerning the truth aletheia
alêtheia
veritas
vérité
truth
verdad
verdade
Wahrheit
of any religious system or teaching. What place Ort
lieu
lugar
location
locus
place
has Jesus in the teaching of the greatest of all Moslem theologians, what place had He in the heart coeur
kardia
cœur
coração
coración
heart
hŗdaya
of this great mystic mysticisme
misticismo
mysticism
μυστικός
mystikos
místico
místicos
mystic
mystique
, this seeker after God Gott
Dieu
Deus
God
Dios
theos
, who, whatever else he may have been, was utterly sincere in his search quête
busca
demanda
search
quest
 ? Al-Ghazali, as a student of the Koran Coran
Corão
Alcorão
Koran
Qor’ân
, must have noticed that in this book Christ occupies a high place ; no fewer than three trinité
trois
triade
ternaire
trindade
três
tríade
ternário
trinity
three
triad
Trimûrti
Trimurti
of the chapters of the Koran, namely, that of Amram’s Family (Surah III), that of The Table (Surah V), and that of Mary Maria
Marie
Mariam
Myriam
Mary
María
Vierge Marie
Virgem Maria
Virgin Mary
(Surah XIX), derive their names from references to Jesus Christ and His work. The very fact that Jesus Christ has a place in the literature of Islam, and is acknowledged by all Moslems as one of their greater prophets in itself therefore challenges comparison between Him and Mohammed Mahomet
Maomé
Muhammed
Muhammad
Mahoma
Mohammed
Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (570-632)
. Did Al-Ghazali ever meet this challenge and in how far did he compare Mohammed with Christ ? It is our purpose Ende
la fin
o final
o fim
el fin
finalité
finalidade
finalidad
the end
the goal
purpose
propósito
telos
télos
meta
in this chapter to answer the question Frage
fragen
question
questão
questionner
questionar
pergunta
perguntar
pregunta
preguntar
by collating all the important references in the Ihya and his other works and then to draw some conclusions both as to his sources and his opinions. The reader may judge for himself how far Al-Ghazali is a schoolmaster to lead Moslems to Christ.

We search in vain among all his works for a sketch of the life Leben
vie
vida
life
zoe
of Christ or of His teaching. Al-Ghazali doubtless had read and was probably well acquainted with the only popular work known which gives a connected account of the life of Jesus Christ according to Moslem sources, namely, Kitab qusus al Anbiya by Ibn Ibrahim Ath-Tha’labi, a doctor of theology teologia
théologie
teología
theology
θεολογία
of the Shaft School, who died in a. h. 427 (a. d. 1036). The fabulous character of this mass of traditions has been shown in a translation of the section which deals with Jesus Christ (Zwemer, "The Moslem Christ."). Al-Ghazali does not give altogether the same stories as are given es gibt
« il y a »
dar-se
haver-se
Gegebenen
la donnée
o dado
dação
given
Gegebenheit
donation
datidade
givenness
gift
by Ath-Tha’labi but gives a great number Zahl
nombre
número
number
nombres
números
numbers
of other incidents and reported sayings, many of which resemble those found in the Gospels and others which are wholly apocryphal.

The question again arises where did Al-Ghazali gain this knowledge connaissance
gnosis
intuition intellectuelle
gnôsis
connaître
conhecer
gnose
knowledge
know
conocer
conocimiento
conhecimento
jñāna
jnāna
jnana
of the Gospel évangile
euanggelion
evangelium
gospel
evangelho
nouveau testament
novo testamento
NT
novum testamentum
new testament
 ? Did he have access to a Persian or Arabic translation ; or was all this material matière
matéria
matter
ύλη
hyle
material
matériel
materialidade
matérialité
materiality
materialidad
which we have collated, the result of hearsay, gathered from the lips of Christian monks and Jewish rabbis ? It is perfectly clear that he was acquainted with Old Testament tradition diadosis
tradition
tradição
tradición
even more than with that of the New Testament. There are scores of passages in which he refers to the teachings of Moses, the Psalms of David David Personnage de la Bible. , and the lives of the Old Testament Prophets. We have already referred to translations of the Bible into Arabic before the time Zeit
le temps
o tempo
the time
el tiempo
chronos
kala
of Al-Ghazali in our first chapter. There is a tradition that " the People of the Book used to read the Torah Torah
Torá
in Hebrew and interpret it in Arabic to the followers of Islam." Another tradition says that " Ka’ab AB
Aitareya Brāhmana
Aitareya Brahmana
Rigveda Brahmanas : The Aitareya and Kausitaki Brāhmanas of the Rigveda, cd. A. B. Keith, Cambridge, Mass., 1920 (HOS XXV).
the Rabbi brought a book to Omar the Caliph and said, ’Here is the Torah, read it’ " (Goldziher, in "Z. D. M. G.," XXXII, 344.). We learn from the Jewish Encyclopaedia that " The fihrist of al-Nadim mentions an Ahmed ibn Abd Allah ibn Salam who translated the Bible into Arabic, at the time of Haroun ar-Rashid, and that Fahr ud-Din ar-Razi mentions a translation of Habbakuk by the son of Rabban At-Tabari. Many of the Arabic Historians as At-Tabari, Mas’udi, Hamza, and Biruni cite passages and recount the early history of the Jews in a most circumstantial manner. Ibn Ku KU
Katha Upanishad
1. Katha Upanishad, In The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, ed. R. E. Hume, 2nd ed., London, 1931 ; 2. Katha Upanishad, ed. Joseph N. Rawson, Oxford, 1934.
-taibah, the historian (d. 889), says that he read the Bible ; and he even made a collection of Biblical passages in a work which has been preserved by Ibn Jauzi of the twelfth century." The first important Arabic translation is that of Sa’adia Gaon (892-942). The influence of this translation was in its way Weg
chemin
caminho
way
camino
as great as that of Gaon’s philosophical work.

A version of the Psalms was made by Hafiz al-Quti in the tenth century and from internal evidence evidência
évidence
evidence
evidente
evidencia
evident
we know that the author had been Christian. Another translation of the Old Testament in Arabic was made by the Jews in Cairo in the middle of the eleventh century. The translation of Sa’adia had become a standard work in Egypt, Palestine and Syria, by the end of the tenth century, and it was revised about a. d. 1070. As regards Persian translations of the Bible we learn from the Jewish Encyclopaedia that according to Maimonides, the Pentateuch was translated into Persian many hundred years previous to Mohammed. But this statement cannot be further substantiated. In regard to Arabic versions of the Gospels we have already given Dr. Kilgour’s statement.

Is it not probable that one or other of these versions of the Gospel was known to Al-Ghazali ? Does he not himself state : "I have read in the Gospel " ? Not only does he reproduce the stories and sayings of Christ from the Gospels but in some cases, as the reader will see, the very words of the text. It is true that there is much apocryphal matter also of which the canonical Gospels know nothing Nichts
néant
nada
nothing
VOIRE vide
. We are in ignorance ignorance
ignorância
ignorancia
ajñāna
ajnana
tamas
and we must remain in ignorance whence Al-Ghazali derived this material ; or did he invent it even as the men of his day invented stories about Mohammed ?

In the Ihya we find the following incidents, real Bestand
Grundbestand
Realität 
réalité
realité fondamentale
réalité subsistante
real
réel
realidad
realidade
reality
and apocryphal, regarding the life of Christ on earth Terre
Terra
Earth
Tierra
Gea
Khouen
prithvî
as a prophet prophétie
profecia
profecía
prophecy
prophète
profeta
prophet
and saint sainteté
santidade
sainthood
saint
santo
Heiligkeit
holiness
santidad
. [1] We begin with Al-Ghazali’s witness spéctateur
espectador
spectator
témoin
testemunha
witness
to His sinlessness : "It is said that the devil diable
diabolos
malin
adversaire
diabo
devil
asura
asuras
asouras
(may God curse him) appeared to Jesus and said, 1 Say there is no God but God.’ He replied : ’ The word Wort
mot
palavra
palabra
word
Worte
rema
parole
mot
mots
vāk
vāc
is true but I will not repeat it after you.’ " (Vol. Ill, p. 23.) Again : " It is related that when Jesus was born, the devils came to Satan and said : ’All the idols have fallen on their faces’. He said : ’ This has happened on your account.’ Then he flew until he reached the regions of the earth ; there he found Jesus had been born and the angels were protecting him. So he returned to the devils and said to them : ’Truly a Prophet was born yesterday. No woman femme
mulher
woman
mujer
feminino
féminin
feminin
fêmea
female
has ever given birth before to a child when I was not present except in this case.’ And that is why men now despair of worshipping idols’." (Vol. Ill, p. 26.)

" It is related that Jesus one day was pillowing his head on a stone ; and the devil passed by and said : ’ O Jesus, now you have shown your love amour
eros
éros
amor
love
for the world !’ Then Jesus picked up the stone, threw it at him and said : ’ Take it and the world.’ " (Vol. Ill, p. 26.) We find this reference to the days of His youth in Nazareth : " Some one said to Jesus : ’Who gave you your education éducation
educação
education
educación
apprentissage
aprendizagem
aprendizado
paideia
 ?’ He replied : ’ No one. But I beheld the ignorance of the foolish despicable and so I departed from it.’ " " Jesus the Prophet was of those who were especially favoured. Among the proofs of it is this that he called down peace paix
paz
peace
shalom
śanti
upon himself, for he said : ’ Peace be on me the day I was born and the day I shall die Tod
mort
morte
muerte
death
thanatos
mourir
morrer
die
morir
and the day I shall be raised up alive.’ And this was because of his peace of mind esprit
espírito
spirit
mente
mind
manas
mental
and his loving kindness towards men. But as for John the son of Zachariah (on him be peace), he took the place of awe and fear Furcht
Furchtbar 
peur
redoutable
temor
medo
fear
miedo
frayeur
crainte
towards God and did not utter these words until after they were repeated to him by his Creator, who said : ’ Peace be upon him the day he was born and the day he died and the day he was raised again.’ " This is an interesting critical comment on the two dualité
dyade
duality
dualidad
dualidade
dois
two
deux
passages referred to, which occur in the same chapter of the Koran, and I have never seen them used elsewhere as an argument for the superiority of Christ to John. (Vol. IV, p. 245.)

Al-Ghazali gives Jesus the usual titles given Him in the Koran, namely, Son of Mary, Spirit of God, Word of God, Prophet and Apostle. But these latter titles mean little because he endorses the strange Moslem theory that there have been no less than 124,000 prophets since the world began. In his book "Al-Iqtasad " he devotes a long dragon
dragão
dragón
long
nāga
argument to prove to the Jews that Jesus was indeed a prophet, basing it upon his teaching and miracles (pp. 83-86). In his Jawahir al-Koran he even classes Mary the Virgin with the prophets and gives the list of these worthies in the following curious order : Adam Adam
Adão
Adán
, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Aaron, Zachariah, John, Jesus, Mary, David, Solomon, Joshua, Lot, Idris Idris
Driss
Edris
VOIR Hénoch
, Khudra, Shu’aib, Elijah, and Mohammed !

Regarding the fasting of our Lord, Al-Ghazali says : " It is related that Jesus (on him be peace) remained for sixty days without eating, engaged in prayer euche
prier
oraison
prière
orar
oração
prece
pray
prayer
oración
 ; then he began to think denken
pensar
penser
think
pensamento
pensée
pensamiento
thinking
of bread and behold a loaf of bread appeared between his hands ; then he sat weeping because he had forgotten his prayers. And behold an old man came to him and Jesus said : ’ God bless you, O servant of God. Call upon God Most High, for I too was in a sad condition and I thought of bread until my prayer departed’. Then the old man prayed : ’ O God, if thou knowest any occasion when the thought of bread entered my head when I was praying do not forgive pardon
perdão
pardón
forgiveness
pardonner
perdoar
perdonar
forgive
me !’ Then he said to Jesus : ’When anything is brought to me to eat I eat it without even thinking what it is’." (Vol. Ill, p. 61.) The following story seems to be based on the injunction of the Gospel " to pluck out the eye " that offends : " It is related of Jesus (on him be peace) that he once went out to pray for rain and when the people gathered together Jesus said to them, ’ Whosoever of you hath committed a sin péché
pecado
sin
hamartia
ἁμαρτία
égaremente
equívoco
let him turn back’ so they all turned away and there was no one left gauche
esquerda
izquierda
left
in the cave with him save one. And Jesus said unto him, ’Have you any sin ?’ He replied : ’By God, I do not know of any except that one day when I was praying a woman passed by me and I looked upon her with this eye and when she had passed I put my finger in my eye and plucked it out and followed her to ask her pardon’. Then Jesus said to him,’ Call upon God that I may believe croyance
croire
crença
crer
belief
believe
in your sincerity’. Then the man Mensch
homme
être humain
ser humano
human being
homem
hombre
the man
anthropos
hommes
humanité
humanity
état humain
estado humano
human state
prayed and the heavens ciel
cieux
céu
céus
heaven
heavens
cielo
cielos
ouranos
Khien
Thien
were covered with clouds and the rain poured down." (Vol. II, p. 217.)

The following stories are related of the miracle semeion
signe
miracle
sinal
milagre
signal
miracle
-working Christ : " Said the disciples to Jesus : ’ What do you think of the dinar-piece (money) ?’ They said : ’ We think it is good Bien
agathon
agathón
Bem
Bom
Good
Bueno
’. He said : ’ But as for me I value Wert
valeur
valor
value
Werte
valeurs
valores
values
valioso
valuable
tesouro
treasure
trésor
it and ashes the same’. " (Vol. Ill, p. 161.) "It was said to the Prophet that Jesus (upon him be peace) used to walk upon the water eau
água
water
hydro
. He replied : ’ Had he still more striven after holiness, he would have walked on the air l’air
aer
the air
vâyu
vayu
’. " (Vol. IV, p. 71.) "It is related that a certain robber waylaid travellers among the children of Israel for forty years. Jesus passed by that way and behind him walked a saint of the worshippers of the people of Israel, one of his disciples. Said the robber to himself : ’ This is the Prophet of God who passes by and with him one of his disciples. If I should come down I would be the third’ " He then goes on to say that the robber tried to show his humility by following not Christ but his disciple. Jesus rebukes them both because of their sins. (Vol. IV, p. 110.) " It is related that Jesus (on him be peace) passed by a blind man who was a leper and lame of both feet because of paralysis and his flesh was consumed by leprosy, and he was saying : ’ Praise Alléluia
Alleluia
Hallelujah
haleluya
ἀλληλούϊα
αλληλούια
Aleluia
louvor
louange
praise
glória
gloire
glory
be to God who has kept me in good health and saved me from many things which have befallen others of his creatures’. Then Jesus said to him : ’ O thou friend, from what kind of affliction do I see that you are free ?’ and he replied : ’O Spirit of God, I am better than those in whose heart God has not put anything of his knowledge and his grace grâce
graça
grace
gracia
kharis
bénédiction
benção
benediction
śaktipāta
shaktipata
’. And Jesus said : ’ You have spoken truly. Stretch forth your hand’ and he stretched forth his hand and became of perfect health both as to his body Körper
corpo
corps
cuerpo
body
Deha
and his appearance Erscheinung
apparition
manifestação
aparecimento
apariencia
appearance
Erscheinende
aparição
, for God had taken away all his sickness. So he accompanied Jesus and worshipped with him." (Vol. IV, p. 250.)

Al-Ghazali often pictures the power possibilité
potentialité
Toute-Possibilité
pouvoir
poder
power
of Jesus to heal the sick, for Christ as the Merciful One appeals to Moslems always and everywhere. We have for example in the Masnavi-i-Ma’anavi this beautiful picture which can be found in prose, section by section in Al-Ghazali too.

" The house of Tsa was the banquet of men of heart, Ho ! afflicted one, quit not this door porte
porta
puerta
gate
door
 ! From all sides the people ever thronged, Many blind and lame, and halt and afflicted, To the door of the house of ’Isa at dawn, That with his breath pneuma
πνεῦμα
souffle
sopro
breath
prāna
prāṇa
prana
Vayu
he might heal their ailments. As soon as he had finished his orisons, That holy one would come forth at the third hour. He viewed these impotent folk, troop by troop, Sitting at his door in hope and expectation ; He spoke to them, saying,’ O stricken ones ! The desires of all of you have been granted by God :

Arise, walk without pain douleur
dor
dolor
pain
lype
souffrance
sofrimento
sofrimiento
suffering
or affliction. Acknowledge the mercy piété
piedade
piedad
piety
pietas
eleison
miséricorde
misericórdia
mercy
and beneficence of God !’ Then all, as camels whose feet are shackled, When you loose their feet in the road, Straightway rush in joy and delight to the halting-place. So did they run upon their feet at his command."

Many of the miracles, however, are puerile, as in this story : "A certain man accompanied Jesus the Son of Mary (upon him be peace) and said : ’ I would like to be with you as your companion.’ So they departed and arrived at the bank of a river and sat down and took their meal. Now they had three loaves, so they ate two and one remained. Then Jesus arose and went to the river to drink and returning did not find the remaining loaf. He said to the man : ’Who took the loaf ?’ He replied : ’I know not.’ So he departed with his companion and saw a gazelle with her two young, and Jesus called one of them and it came to him and he killed it and prepared it and they ate together. Then he said to the young gazelle : ’ Get up by God’s will’ and it arose and departed. And he turned to the man and said : ’ I ask you in the name of Him who worked this miracle before your eyes, who took the loaf ? ’ He answered : ’ I know not.’ So they departed to a cave and Jesus (upon whom be peace) began to collect the pebbles on the sand and said : ’Become bread by God’s permission !’ and they became bread ; then he divided them into three parts and said : ’A third is for me, a third is for you and a third is for the man who took the loaf’ and the man said : ’ I am he who took the loaf.’ Jesus replied : ’ Take all of it and depart from me.’ " (Vol. Ill, p. 188.) This story is related by Al-Ghazali in his chapter on greed and covetousness to show that he who loves this world cannot be a companion of the saints !

That Jesus was gentle in word and conduct seems to be the lesson taught in the following two stories : " It is related of Jesus that once a pig passed by him and he said to it : ’ Go in peace.’ They said to him : ’ O Spirit of God, why do you say this to a pig.’ He replied : ’I dislike to accustom my tongue to use any evil Übel
Böse
mal
evil
maligno
malefic
the bad
kakos
words.’ " (Vol. Ill, p. 87.) " It is related that Jesus with his disciples once passed the carcase of a dog. Said the disciples : ’ How noisome is the smell of this dog.’ Said Jesus (on him be peace) : ’ How beautiful is the shine of his white teeth’ as if he wanted to rebuke them for abusing the dog and to warn them not to mention anything of what God has created save at its best." (Vol. Ill, p. 150.) This incident is given by Jallal ud Din in poetic form :

" One evening Jesus lingered in the market-place,
Teaching the people parables of truth and grace,
When in the square carré
quadrado
square
remote a crowd was seen to rise
And stop with loathing gestures and abhorring cries,
The Master and His meek disciples went to see
What cause causa
cause
aitia
aitía
aition
for this commotion and disgust could be,
And found a poor dead dog beside the gutter laid :
Revolting sight ! at which each face its hate haine
mîsos
kótos
ódio
hate
betrayed.
One held his nose, one shut his eyes, one turned away,
And all among themselves began aloud to say,
’ Detested creature Einzelnhet
singularité
singularidade
singularity
singularidad
individuality
individualidade
individualidad
individuation
individuação
individu
indivíduo
individuum
individual
vereinzelt
isolé
Vereinzeltung
isolement
Vereinzelung
esseulement
singularização
créature
criatura
creature
personne
pessoa
person
 ! he pollutes the earth and air !’
’ His eyes are bleared !’
’ His ears are foul !’
’ His ribs are bare !’
’ In his torn hide there is not a decent shoe-string left !’
’ No doubt the execrable cur was hung for theft !’ Then
Jesus spake and dropped on him this saving breath :
’ Even pearls are dark before the whiteness of his teeth !"’

We add the following quotations which set forth the poverty, humility and homelessness of the Christ taken from Al-Ghazali’s " Precious Pearl " : " Consider Jesus Christ, for it is related of him that he owned nothing save one garment of wool which he wore for twenty years and that he took nothing with him on all his wanderings save a cruse and a rosary and a comb. One day he saw a man drinking from a stream with his hands, so he cast away the cruse and did not use it again. He saw another man combing his beard with his fingers so he threw away his comb and did not use it again. And Jesus was accustomed to say,’ My steed is my legs, and my houses are the caves of the earth, and my food are its vegetables, and my drink is from its rivers, and my dwelling wohnen
habitar
dwell
habitação
dwelling
Vâsyam
Vasyam
-place among the sons of Adam !’" In another connection he writes : " It was said to Jesus : ’ If you would take possession of a house and live there it would be better for you’ and he said : ’Where are the houses of those who lived before us ? ’ " (Ihya, Vol, III, p. 140.)

A story is related (Vol. IV, p. 326) to show that Christ knew what was in the hearts of men and could change anicca
impermanence
impermanência
changement
mudança
change
altération
alteração
modification
modificação
their purposes by prayer to God. In this case He makes an old man cease from his work of cleaning the ground, go to sleep sommeil
sleep
état de sommeil
estado de sono
sleep state
and afterwards return to his work.

Another story is as follows : " It is related that Jesus (upon him be peace) in his wanderings passed by a man asleep, wrapped up in his garment. So he wakened him and said : ’ O thou that sleep-est ! arise and make mention of God’. He replied : ’ What do you want from me ? I have forsaken the world to its own’. Jesus replied : ’ Sleep on then my beloved’ " (Vol. IV, p. 140.) " It is related concerning Jesus that he sat in the shade of a wall of a certain man, who saw him and made him get up, but he replied : ’You have not made me arise but verily God made me arise. He does not wish me to delight in the shade by day’" (Vol. IV, p. 163.) The least of life’s pleasures is not for the ascetic saint.

" Said John to Jesus (on them be peace) : ’ Do not be angry’. Jesus replied : ’ I am not able to cease from anger altogether for I am human’. Then said John : ’ Do not desire property’. Jesus replied : ’That is possible’" (Vol. Ill, p. 114.)

He quotes the following prayer of Jesus (Vol. I, p. 222) : "Jesus was accustomed to say to God, ’ O God, I have arisen from my sleep, and am not able to ward off that which I hate and am not able to possess posséder
avoir
possuir
ter
possess
posuir
the benefit of that which I desire and the matter rests in hands other than mine. And I have pledged myself to my work and there is no man so poor as I am. O God, let not mine enemies rejoice over me and let not my friends deal ill with me, and let not my afflictions come to me in the matter of my religion Religion
religion
religião
religión
. And do not allow the world to occupy my care Sorge 
souci
cura
preocupação
care
cuidado
merimna
sollicitudo
inquiétude
inquietude
inquietud
unquiet
unquietness
and do not allow the unmerciful to overcome me, O Thou Eternal !’ "

" It is related concerning Jesus (on him be peace) that God spoke to him saying : ’Though you serve me with the worship of the people of heaven and earth le Ciel et la Terre
Céu e Terra
Heaven and Earth
Cielo y Tierra
and do not have love towards God in your heart but hatred toward Him it will not enrich you at all’ " (Vol. II, p. 210.) "God Most High said to Jesus (on him be peace), ’Verily when I look upon the secret thoughts of my servant and do not find in them love either for this world or the world to come I fill him with my own love and I put him in my safe-keeping’ " (Vol. IV, p. 258.) In the "Alchemy of Happiness félicité
felicidade
bonheur
felicidad
happiness
eudaimonia
" we already found allusion to this subject sujet
objet
sujeito
objeto
subject
object
Subjekt
Objekt
 : "Jesus (upon him be peace) saw the world in the form of an ugly old hag. He asked her how many husbands she had possessed ; she replied that they were countless. He asked whether they had died or been divorced ; she said that she had slain them all. ’ I marvel’ he said,’ at the fools who see what you have done to others, and still desire you’ " " Jesus (on him be peace) said, ’ The lover of the world is like a man drinking sea-water ; the more he drinks, the more thirsty he gets, till at last he perishes with thirst unquenched’ "

Al-Ghazali, however, never seems to have drawn the conclusion from the life of Christ which a careful study of the Gospel would have made possible. Namely, that a true renunciation of the world is only possible in the service of others and not by withdrawing from men. Mohammedan mysticism has always resulted in two evils, as Major Durie Osborn points out : " It has dug a deep gulf between those who can know God and those who must wander in darkness tenèbre
ténèbres
nuit
trevas
escuridão
darkness
noite
night
noche
, feeding upon the husks of rites and ceremonies. It has affirmed with emphasis, that only by a complete renunciation of the world is it possible to attain the true end of man’s existence Existenz
existence
exister
existentia
existência
existencia
bios
. Thus all the best and truest natures— the men who might have put a soul âme
psyche
psukhê
alma
soul
atman
ātman
atmâ
âtmâ
in the decaying Church of Islam—have been cut off from their proper task travail
travaux
tâche
labeur
trabalho
labor
trabajo
tarefa
task
to wander about in deserts and solitary places, or expend their lives in idle and profitless passivity disguised under the title of ’ spiritual contemplation contemplation
theoria
theoría
contemplação
contemplación
.’ (sikr) But this has only been part of the evil. The logical result of Pantheism panthéisme
panteísmo
pantheism
is the destruction of the moral law. If God be all in all, and man’s apparent individuality a delusion of the perceptive faculty, there exists no will which can act action
praxis
agir
atuar
ação
act
acción
prattein
, no conscience Gewissen
conscience
consciência
conciencia
consciencia
Bewusstsein
Bewußtsein
consciencidade
consciousness
conscient
purusârtha
samvid
bodha
cit
chit
which can reprove and applaud. . . . Thousands of reckless and profligate spirits have entered the orders of the dervishes to enjoy the license thereby obtained. Their affectation of piety is simply a cloak for the practice of sensuality ; their emancipation from the ritual of Islam involves a liberation délivrance
libération
liberação
liberation
liberación
moksha
mokṣa
also from its moral restraints. And thus a movement, animated at its outset by a high and lofty purpose, has degenerated into a fruitful source of ill. The stream which ought to have expanded into a fertilising river, has become a vast swamp, exhaling vapours charged with disease and death."


Voir en ligne : Sophia Perennis


[1After completing this research I found a fuller account of all references to Jesus Christ in Moslem Literature, especially the Ihya as given by Michael Asin Palacios in Logia et Agrapha Domini Jesus apud Moslemicos, etc., in Patrologia Orientalis, Tome XIII fascicule 3. Paris 1917.

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