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THE DOCTRINE OF VIBRATION

Dyczkowski : Advaita Vedanta

Integral Monism of Kashmiri Shaivism

vendredi 9 mars 2018, par Cardoso de Castro

honnêteté
honestidade
honesty
honneur
honra
honradez
honor
honour
retitude
retidão

Advaita non-dualité
não-dualidade
advaita
non-duality
non-dualidad
non-dualisme
Vedānta Vedānta
Vedanta
Vedânta
Védânta
emerged, to a large extent, as a critique of Sāmkhya Sāmkhya
samkhya
Sâmkhya
dualism. Classical Sāmkhya posits two dualité
dyade
duality
dualidad
dualidade
dois
two
deux
realities, both eternal but of contrary nature nature
physis
phusis
phúsis
natura
natureza
naturaleza
. One is Puruşa Purusha
Puruşa
, ‘the Person Einzelnhet
singularité
singularidade
singularity
singularidad
individuality
individualidade
individualidad
individuation
individuação
individu
indivíduo
individuum
individual
vereinzelt
isolé
Vereinzeltung
isolement
Vereinzelung
esseulement
singularização
créature
criatura
creature
personne
pessoa
person
’, the other Prakŗti Prakriti
Prakŗti
Prakrti
Pradhâna
le pré-donné
le premier agent
or ‘Nature’. The Person is the Self Selbst
soi-même
Soi
si mesmo
Self
si mismo
A non-personal, all-inclusive awareness.
who, as pure sentient consciousness Gewissen
conscience
consciência
conciencia
consciencia
Bewusstsein
Bewußtsein
consciencidade
consciousness
conscient
purusârtha
samvid
bodha
cit
chit
, is the witness spéctateur
espectador
spectator
témoin
testemunha
witness
of the activity of all that lies in the sphere of objectivity subjectivité
objectivité
subjetividade
objetividade
subjectividad
objectividad
subjectivity
objectivity
Subjektivität
Objektivität
. The latter includes not only the outer innen
intérieur
interior
inner
außen
aussen
extérieur
exterior
outer
Innenseins
être intérieur
ser interior
interiority
antaratva
physical world but also the body Körper
corpo
corps
cuerpo
body
Deha
and mind esprit
espírito
spirit
mente
mind
manas
mental
the Person inhabits, vitalising and illumining it with his conscious presence Anwesenheit
présence
parousia
presença
presence
parusía
. Although varied and constantly changing, all that lies in the sphere of objectivity shares a common nature. All thoughts, perceptions or physical phenomena are equally part of the play jeu
jogo
juego
play
lila
lîlâ
game
of Nature—Prakŗti—which manifests in this way Weg
chemin
caminho
way
camino
to fulfil the need Notwendigkeit
nécessité
necessidade
necesidad
necessity
besoin
need
ananke
of the Person for phenomenal experience. In this experience the Person represents the principle Principe
arche
arkhê
princípio
Princípio
Principio
Principle
of sentience expérience
aisthesis
experiência
sensação
impressão
impression
impresión
sensación
sensation
sentience
vāsanā
and Nature that of change anicca
impermanence
impermanência
changement
mudança
change
altération
alteração
modification
modificação
and activity. Just as insentient Nature cannot view itself, and so is as if blind, similarly the Person does not act action
praxis
agir
atuar
ação
act
acción
prattein
or change, and so is as if lame. The two together make experience possible. The content of this experience is real Bestand
Grundbestand
Realität 
réalité
realité fondamentale
réalité subsistante
real
réel
realidad
realidade
reality
but unsatisfactory. The Person is bound by Nature ; it experiences the changes in Nature as if they were its own and so suffers their painful consequences. The Person is freed when he discriminates between himself and Nature. The latter then retires into its original unmanifest [35] state severing its association with the Person.

Īśvarakrşna explains :

Just as a dancing girl retires from her dance after performing for the audience, in the same way Nature (Prakŗti) retires after exhibiting herself to the Person.

In this way the Person achieves a state of transcendental detachment desapego
desprendimento
détachement
apatheia
apathy
detachment
dispassion
kaivalya
vairāgya
renoncement
renúncia
dépassionnement
vairāgyam
(kaivalya). But because the Person is an independent reality, already separate from Nature, he can in fact neither be bound nor released.

Therefore, no one is actually bound, no one released and no one transmigrates. [It is] Nature, the abode of diversity that transmigrates, is bound and released.

Ultimately, bondage is unreal and no relationship is possible between an eternal subject sujet
objet
sujeito
objeto
subject
object
Subjekt
Objekt
and an equally eternal object. The problem is that they cannot be related to one another unless this relationship is also eternal. In order to preserve the transcendental integrity intégrité
integridade
integridad
integrity
innocence
inocência
innocentia
of the Person, the reality of Nature must be denied. Not only does the Advaita Vedānta do this, but it also denies that there is a plurality of Persons. The Self, each individual’s most authentic identity Identität
identité
identidade
identity
identidad
pratyabhijnā
pratyabhijñā
reconnaissance
reconhecimento
, is beyond the specifications of the qualities of Nature, and so nothing Nichts
néant
nada
nothing
VOIRE vide
can distinguish one ‘self’ from another. The Self is one only and hence none other than the Brahman Brahman , the absolute Absolu
Absoluto
Absolute
Absoluteness
Bhairava
Paramaśiva
, free of all specification. From this point of view the one L'Un
hen
hén
Uno
the One
reality can only be grasped through negation Negieren
Negation
negação
negating
wu-nien
. However, although this safeguards it from predication it also implies that the empirical (vyavahāra) is itself a negation of absolute reality. As Kşemarāja puts it : “the Brahman is what the world is not.” And so the world is less than real. The Brahman is always empirically unmanifest (avyakta). It is beyond the reach of the senses but, like the Person, is the witness (sākşin) of all things. It can never be an object of knowledge connaissance
gnosis
intuition intellectuelle
gnôsis
connaître
conhecer
gnose
knowledge
know
conocer
conocimiento
conhecimento
jñāna
jnāna
jnana
for “who can know the knower ?” Ultimately it is that which cannot be grasped or perceived. The world which is ‘grasped’ and ‘perceived’ cannot be the Brahman and is consequently less than real.

Absolute Being Seiende
Seiendes
Seienden
l'étant
étants
ente
entes
sendo
beings
being
is not an existing quality tendance
tendência
tendency
qualité
qualidade
calidad
quality
attribut
atributo
atribute
guna
gunas
to be found in things ; it is not an object of thought or the result of production Herstellen
produire
produzir
production
producir
Herstellung
produção
production
poiesis
poiein
producteur
produtor
productor
. It is that from which both speech and mind turn back, unable to comprehend its fullness. To make this point Sankara Shankara
Shamkara
Sankara
Śañkara
Shankarasharya
Çankara
Śankara
Çamkara
quotes a passage from a lost Upanişad in his commentary on the Brahmasūtra. Baskali, an Upanişadic sage sophia
sagesse
sabedoria
wisdom
sabedoría
σοφία
Sage
Sábio
, is being questioned by his disciple about the nature of the absolute. He sits motionless and silent. “Teach me, sir,” prayed the disciple. [36] The teacher continued to be silent. When addressed a second and third time he said : “I am teaching, but you do not follow. The Self is silence silence
silêncio
silencio
discrétion
sobriété
discrição
sobriedade
discretion
sobriety
sobriedad
.”

The undetermined apeiron
indéterminé
indeterminado
ilimitado
illimité
undetermined
unlimited
and unthinkable character of the Brahman is a consequence of the absolutes’s eternal and immutable nature. To concede the existence Existenz
existence
exister
existentia
existência
existencia
bios
of a real universe Univers
Universo
Universe
is, from the Vedāntin’s point of view, to posit the existence of a reality apart from the Brahman. Nor can we simply identify a real universe with the absolute unless we are prepared to compromise its unchanging, absolute status. The criterion of authenticity is immutability. Reality never changes ; only that which is less than real can appear to do so. Reality is constant in the midst of change. What this means richesse
abondance
riqueza
abundância
wealth
prospérité
Artha
moyens
means
meios
essentially is that there is change although nothing changes. This impossible situation is reflected in the ultimate impossibility of change itself. That which does not exist prior to its changing and at the end Ende
la fin
o final
o fim
el fin
finalité
finalidade
finalidad
the end
the goal
purpose
propósito
telos
télos
meta
, after it has changed, must be equally non-existent between these two moments. Although the world of change appears to be real, it cannot be so. Change, according to the Vedāntin, presupposes a loss of identity. Reality cannot suffer transformation transformation
transformação
transformación
mutation
mutação
mutación
Wandlung
Überführung
transformateur
transfiguration
transfiguração
transfiguración
 ; if it were to do so, it would become something else and the real would be deprived of its reality. The immortal can never become mortal, nor can the mortal become immortal. The ultimate nature of anything cannot change. Change of any sort is merely apparent (vivarta) ; the world of change and becoming is a false superimposition adhyāsa
surimposition
superimposition
sobreposição
(adhyāropa, adhyāsa) on the absolute.

In cosmic terms, the mistake (bhrānti) consists of the supposition that the real Brahman is the unreal universe and the unreal universe is the real Brahman. In microcosmic terms, it is the mistake of falsely conceiving the body, mind or even one’s personality to be the Self. In the same way as the image image
imagem
imagen
imaginação
imagination
kalpanā
of a snake serpent
serpente
snake
is falsely superimposed on a rope, similarly the universe is falsely projected onto the real substratum, the Brahman. Ignorance ignorance
ignorância
ignorancia
ajñāna
ajnana
tamas
is not merely a personal lack of knowledge, but a cosmic principle. As such it is called “Māyā Maya
maya
Mâyâ
Māyā
illusion
ilusão
ilusión
,” the undefinable factor (anirvacanīya) that brings this mistake in identity about. The reality status of this cosmic illusion is also undefinable : on the one hand it is not Brahman, the sole reality ; on the other hand it is not absolutely non-existent like a hare’s horn or the son of a barren woman femme
mulher
woman
mujer
feminino
féminin
feminin
fêmea
female
.

Brahman is the source of world appearances only in the sense of being their unconditioned ground or essential nature. The universe is false not because it has no nature of its own but because it does have one. Just as the illusion of a snake disappears when one sees that it is nothing but a rope, similarly cancellation (bādha) of the empirically real occurs when the absolute reality of the Brahman is realised. Thus, according to Vedānta, appearance Erscheinung
apparition
manifestação
aparecimento
apariencia
appearance
Erscheinende
aparição
implies the real, while the real need not imply [37] appearance. To appear is essentially to appear in place Ort
lieu
lugar
location
locus
place
of the real, but to be real is not necessarily to appear. All things exist because the absolute exists. It is their Being. Thus the very existence of phenomena implies their non-existence as independent realities. When they are known to be as they are, in the fullest sense of their existence, their phenomenal nature disappears leaving the ground of Being naked and accessible. This approach was validated by a critique of experience. The Vedānta established that space Raum
Räumlichkeit
räumlich
espace
espacialité
espaço
espacialidade
espacial
espacio
espacialidad
space
spaciality
spatial
, time and the other primary categories Kategorien
catégories
categorias
categorías
categories
kategoriai
of our daily experience can have no absolute existence. It was therefore necessary to make a distinction between a relative truth aletheia
alêtheia
veritas
vérité
truth
verdad
verdade
Wahrheit
—that accepted by the precritical common man—and an absolute truth discovered at a higher level of consciousness.


Voir en ligne : MARK DYCZKOWSKI

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