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ĪŚVARA-PRATYABHIJÑĀ-VIMARŚINĪ OF ABHINAVAGUPTA

Pandey : Le Maheśvara

DOCTRINE OF DIVINE RECOGNITION

samedi 9 juin 2018, par Cardoso de Castro

honnêteté
honestidade
honesty
honneur
honra
honradez
honor
honour
retitude
retidão

The Maheśvara, in the context of metaphysics Metaphysik
métaphysique
metafísica
metaphysics
, is the Free Will. As such He has two dualité
dyade
duality
dualidad
dualidade
dois
two
deux
powers, ( I ) the power possibilité
potentialité
Toute-Possibilité
pouvoir
poder
power
to act action
praxis
agir
atuar
ação
act
acción
prattein
, that is, to manifest the phenomena, which are the basis of the temporal and spatial Raum
Räumlichkeit
räumlich
espace
espacialité
espaço
espacialidade
espacial
espacio
espacialidad
space
spaciality
spatial
orders and ( II ) the power to know connaissance
gnosis
intuition intellectuelle
gnôsis
connaître
conhecer
gnose
knowledge
know
conocer
conocimiento
conhecimento
jñāna
jnāna
jnana
, that is, to manifest the limited subjects and objects and all the rest that is involved in cognition intellection
intelecção
intelección
cognição
cognición
cognition
mentation
. The former is technically called ‘Kriyāśakti’ and the latter ’Jñanaśakti’. He is called Maheśvara, because of His omnipotence and omniscience, not in the sense, in which these words are understood in the system of Nyāya lógica
logique
logic
Logik
tarka-vidyā
nyāya
nyaya
, but in the sense that He has two powers as presented above.

In this connection it is necessary to keep in mind esprit
espírito
spirit
mente
mind
manas
mental
that the Śaiva differs from the Naiyāyika in his conception begreifen 
concevoir
conceber
Begriff
conceito
concept
conception
concepção
concepción
of the ‘Power’ ( Śakti ). According to the latter, it is a quality tendance
tendência
tendency
qualité
qualidade
calidad
quality
attribut
atributo
atribute
guna
gunas
which cannot exist without a substratum and, therefore, presupposes a possessor, distinct from itself. The talk of power necessarily means richesse
abondance
riqueza
abundância
wealth
prospérité
Artha
moyens
means
meios
dualism. The knower is different from the power to know and so is the doer Herstellen
produire
produzir
production
producir
Herstellung
produção
production
poiesis
poiein
producteur
produtor
productor
fazer
fazimento
doer
from the power to act. But the former holds that the power is non-different from the possessor. ( Śaktiśaktimatorabhedaḥ ). It is the very being Seiende
Seiendes
Seienden
l'étant
étants
ente
entes
sendo
beings
being
of the possessor : the distinction between the power and its possessor is as imaginary as between the fire Feuer
fogo
feu
fire
pyr
Agni
têjas
tejas
and its power to burn.

Similar is the case with the difference différence
bheda
diferença
difference
of one power from another. It is assumed because of the variety of the effects. It is of the same kind as is imagined between the fire’s power of burning and that of baking.


Maheśvara, the Absolute Absolu
Absoluto
Absolute
Absoluteness
Bhairava
Paramaśiva
Mind.

In the Śaiva metaphysics of Kashmir, the Ultimate Metaphysical Principle Principe
arche
arkhê
princípio
Princípio
Principio
Principle
is technically called Maheśvara. And in contrast to the Brahman Brahman of the Vedāntin, which is referred to in the neuter gender, the Śaivas refer to the Maheśvara in the masculine. ‘He’ is not only Self Selbst
soi-même
Soi
si mesmo
Self
si mismo
A non-personal, all-inclusive awareness.
-luminous ( Prakāśamaya ) like the Brahman of the Vedāntin, and, therefore, Śānta ( passive ) (?) but also self-conscious and free ( Vimarśamaya ). The implication of the affix ‘maya Maya
maya
Mâyâ
Māyā
illusion
ilusão
ilusión
’ in the present context is similar to that of the Vedāntin, when he talks of the Brahman as ‘Ānandamaya’.

Prakāśa Licht
lumière
luz
light
phos
prakāśa
prakasha
and Vimarśa parāmarśa
acte de conscience
prise de conscience
tomada de consciência
vimarśa
prise de conscience active
are inseparable. There is no self-luminosity without self-consciousness Gewissen
conscience
consciência
conciencia
consciencia
Bewusstsein
Bewußtsein
consciencidade
consciousness
conscient
purusârtha
samvid
bodha
cit
chit
and vice vice
vices
vício
vícios
défaut
malice
malícia
kakíai
versa. The two expressions simply present an analytical view of the same Ultimate Reality Bestand
Grundbestand
Realität 
réalité
realité fondamentale
réalité subsistante
real
réel
realidad
realidade
reality
. This Reality, because it is self-luminous and self-conscious, is spoken of as the Universal Mind or Self, The Reality, in the words of the Śaiva, is “Prakāśa-vimarśa-maya”. In the context of metaphysics, to put the idea idea
idée
ideia
idea
ιδεα
idéa
metaphorically, the Reality is like a mirror, capable of producing the multiplicity Vielfalt
Mannigfaltigkeit
multiplicité
multiplicidade
multiplicidad
multiple
múltiplo
multiplicity
dez mil
ten thousand
dix mille
of its own affections. Just as a mirror remains really unaffected by the reflections which are cast in it by external objects, so the Reality remains really unaffected by the appearances, the Ābhāsas, which it manifests, which proceed from it as do the thoughts, ideas, or mental images from an individual Einzelnhet
singularité
singularidade
singularity
singularidad
individuality
individualidade
individualidad
individuation
individuação
individu
indivíduo
individuum
individual
vereinzelt
isolé
Vereinzeltung
isolement
Vereinzelung
esseulement
singularização
créature
criatura
creature
personne
pessoa
person
mind. But the distinction between the Reality, the Universal Mirror, and an ordinary looking-glass miroir
espelho
espejo
glass
reflexo
reflexão
reflex
refléxion
is that ( I ) while the latter is not aware of its ‘being’, does not know that it is, is not self-conscious, the former is ; and ( II ) while the latter depends for its affections on the external, the former is perfectly independent of everything external. Its affections spring from it as do the ideas from the individual mind. It means that the Reality is the Mind and the universe Univers
Universo
Universe
is nothing Nichts
néant
nada
nothing
VOIRE vide
but the thought of the Universal Mind. The universe is a reflection on the Universal Mirror. The Prakāśa is the mirror and the power of awareness awareness
being aware
être-conscient
ser-ciente
estar-consciente
dṛṣṭisṛṣṭi
of the ‘Being’ is the Vimarśa.

In the context of epistemology, it means that the Reality is self-shining and self-conscious. It means that the Reality is the Universal Self-consciousness ; that it is the presupposition of every experience and assertion and denial.

It is admitted that every determinate experience, that an individual subject sujet
objet
sujeito
objeto
subject
object
Subjekt
Objekt
has, is due to an affection Affektion
affection
afecção
afección
of the individual mind by an external object through senses and to the determinative reaction of the mind on the data, supplied through the senses. The Śaiva admits that the aspect forme
eidos
eîdos
aspecto
perfil
aspect
of the individual that receives the affections of the external object, whereon the external objects are reflected, is the ‘Prakāśa’ and is identical with the ‘Universal Prakāśa’ ; and that the aspect of the individual, that determinately reacts on what is reflected on it, is the ‘Vimarśa’ and is identical with the ‘Universal Vimarśa’. “The Universal and the individual are essentially identical”, is an assertion that the Śaiva makes in common with the Vedāntin. And because it is an acknowledged fact that the individual mind is the presupposition of all experiences, a fact that has been admitted even in the West point cardinal
points carinales
ponto cardeal
pontos cardeais
cardinal direction
cardinal directions
punto cardinal
puntos cardinales
Nord
Norte
North
Sud
Sul
South
o Este
Leste
East
Ouest
Oeste
West
by such an eminent thinker as Descartes Descartes René Descartes (1596-1650), mathématicien, physicien et philosophe français.  ; and because the individual is identical with the Universal ; the Śaiva, therefore, holds that the Universal Mind as ‘Prakāśa’ and ‘ Vimarśa’ is the presupposition of all experiences.

Epistemically ‘Prakāśa’ also means that the object of experience is essentially ‘Prakāśa’ i. e. of the nature nature
physis
phusis
phúsis
natura
natureza
naturaleza
of ‘idea’. For, if the object be admitted to be different from ‘Prakāśa’, essentially opposite to ‘Prakāśa’ i. e., ‘Aprakāśa’ ; if it be not the essential nature of the object to shine ; if ‘not to shine’ were the essential nature of the object, it would never shine in experience ; because the essential nature of a thing does not change anicca
impermanence
impermanência
changement
mudança
change
altération
alteração
modification
modificação
and if it changes, it cannot be admitted to be its essential nature.

The Śaiva rejects the view of the dualists and the pluralisms, who hold that though it is not the essential nature of the object to shine, yet it is made to shine by the means of right droite
direita
right
knowledge, ‘Pramāṇa’. For, he asserts that that the essential nature of which is ‘not to shine’, can never be made to shine. Thus he asserts that everything is essentially ‘Prakāśa’ and claims to be a Mahādvaitavādin.

From the mystical point of view also the Reality is the same. It is self-shining and self-conscious. The Śaiva admits that in the perfect emancipation (Pūrṇamokṣa) there is no negation Negieren
Negation
negação
negating
wu-nien
of self-consciousness. For, that would mean reduction to the state of the insentience ( jāḑyāpatti ). In fact, this is the chief point of difference between the Śaiva and the Vedāntin. For while the Vedāntin admits the Brahman to be self-shining only (Cinmātra) and without self-consciousness (Nirvimarśa) and accordingly he holds the Brahman to be Śānta and the liberation délivrance
libération
liberação
liberation
liberación
moksha
mokṣa
to be the identity Identität
identité
identidade
identity
identidad
pratyabhijnā
pratyabhijñā
reconnaissance
reconhecimento
with the Brahman and, therefore, a state of negation of self-consciousness : the Śaiva admits self-consciousness to persist even in the final emancipation, because he holds the Reality, into which the appearance Erscheinung
apparition
manifestação
aparecimento
apariencia
appearance
Erscheinende
aparição
merges, to be not only self-shining but also self-conscious.

He, however, asserts the Reality and the final emancipation to be immediacy ( Nirvikalpa ). His assertion is made on the basis of the conception of mediacy (Vikalpa), which may be stated as follows :—

Determinacy consists ( I ) in unifying a multiplicity into a unity Einheit
unité
unidade
unidad
unity
, as when a person combines a number Zahl
nombre
número
number
nombres
números
numbers
of simple simplicité
simplicidade
spimplicidad
simplicity
simple
simples
percepts into a complex whole ; ( II ) in contra-distinguishing the object of cognition “this” from “not this” ; ( III ) in interpreting a stimulus in a variety of ways and in accepting one interpretation to be correct and rejecting others as incorrect. Thus, determinacy in all cases is dependent on the consciousness of multiplicity either for unification unicité
unicidade
unicity
unicidad
wahdat
philia
amizade
favor
propiciação
favorecimento
unification
unificação
unificación
or for consciousness of distinction. Therefore, in the absence of consciousness of multiplicity, determinacy is not possible. Since in the transcendental Self-consciousness, there is nothing to be contra-distinguished from the Self, as there is no ‘not-being Nichtsein
non-être
não-ser
non-being
not-being
non-ser
non ser
me on
’ from which ’being’ is to be distinguished, it cannot be spoken of as determinate consciousness.

The Śaivas admit, like the Vedāntin, that the individual mind is identical with the Universal. Their conception of the macrocosm is based on a very careful study of the microcosm. They hold that what is true in the case of the individual self is equally so in that of the Universal. Accordingly they maintain that the entire universe is a manifestation Offenbarkeit
manifestação
manifestation
manifestación
Bekundungsschichten
of the Universal Mind exactly as the world of imagination image
imagem
imagen
imaginação
imagination
kalpanā
is that of the individual and that the universe is related to the Universal Mind exactly as ideas are related to the individual.

Thus, the conception of the Ultimate Reality as Prakāśa-vimarśamaya, self-luminous and self-conscious, is not only what the metaphysical reasoning leads to, but also what the mystic mysticisme
misticismo
mysticism
μυστικός
mystikos
místico
místicos
mystic
mystique
experience in the indeterminate ( nirvikalpa ) Samādhi, from which a yogin rises either automatically ( Svatovyuttiṣṭhate haine
mîsos
kótos
ódio
hate
) or is awakened by another ( parabodhitah ) reveals. It is also the presupposition of all volitional, cognitive and conscious-physical acts at the empirical level. The distinctive conception of the Ultimate Reality in the metaphysical context, according to Kashmir Śaivas, is, therefore, “The Free Will” ( Svatantrā Icchā voluntas
volonté
vontade
voluntad
volition
the will
icchā
).


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