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Dyczkowski : absoluteness of the absolute

vendredi 9 mars 2018

honnêteté
honestidade
honesty
honneur
honra
honradez
honor
honour
retitude
retidão

The Śaiva absolutist rejects any theory that maintains that the universe Univers
Universo
Universe
is less than real Bestand
Grundbestand
Realität 
réalité
realité fondamentale
réalité subsistante
real
réel
realidad
realidade
reality
. From his point of view a doctrine doctrine
doutrina
canon
cânone
of two dualité
dyade
duality
dualidad
dualidade
dois
two
deux
truths, one absolute Absolu
Absoluto
Absolute
Absoluteness
Bhairava
Paramaśiva
and the other relative, endangers the very foundation of monism. The Kashmiri Śaiva Śivaïsme du Kaśmïr
Shivaïsme du Cachemire
Xivaísmo de Caxemira
Shivaismo de Caxemira
Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmiri Śaiva
approach is integral : everything is given es gibt
« il y a »
dar-se
haver-se
Gegebenen
la donnée
o dado
dação
given
Gegebenheit
donation
datidade
givenness
gift
a place Ort
lieu
lugar
location
locus
place
in the economy of the whole. It is equally wrong to say that reality is either one or diverse. Those who do so fail to grasp the true nature nature
physis
phusis
phúsis
natura
natureza
naturaleza
of things which is neither as well as both.

“We, do not” says Abhinavagupta Abhinavagupta
Abhinava
AG
Abh
Abhinavagupta (950-1020), maître du shivaïsme du Cachemire, aussi maître en yoga, tantra, poétique, dramaturgie.
, “base our contention that [reality] is one because of the contradictions inherent in saying that it is dual. It is your approach (pakşa) that accepts this [method Methode
Methodologie
Methodik
méthode
méthodologie
méhtodique
métodos
metodologia
metódico
method
methodology
]. [While], if [duality and oneness] were in fact [to contradict each other], they would clearly be two [distinct realities].”

The Vedāntin, who maintains that non-duality non-dualité
não-dualidade
advaita
non-duality
non-dualidad
non-dualisme
is the true nature of the absolute by rejecting duality as only provisionally real, is ultimately landed in a dualism between the real and illusory by the foolishness of his own excessive sophistry (vāc Wort
mot
palavra
palabra
word
Worte
rema
parole
mot
mots
vāk
vāc
āfadurvidyā). Oneness is better understood as the coextensive unity Einheit
unité
unidade
unidad
unity
(ekarasa) of both duality and unity. They are equally expressions of the absolute. As Gopinath Kaviraj says :

According to Śankara Shankara
Shamkara
Sankara
Śañkara
Shankarasharya
Çankara
Śankara
Çamkara
, Brahman Brahman is truth aletheia
alêtheia
veritas
vérité
truth
verdad
verdade
Wahrheit
and Māyā Maya
maya
Mâyâ
Māyā
illusion
ilusão
ilusión
is inexplicable (anirvacanīyā). Hence the [Advaitin’s] endeavour to demonstrate the superiority of Advaita philosophy Philosophie
philosophy
filosofia
filosofía
φιλοσοφία
philosophia
is turned against his own system. It tarnishes the picture of its philosophical perfection perfection
perfeição
perfección
entelecheia
and profundity. He cannot accept Māyā to be a reality, therefore his non-dualism is exclusive. The whole system is based on renunciation and elimination and thus is not all-embracing .... By accepting Māyā to be Brahman (brahmamayī), eternal (nityā) and real (satyarūpa), Brahman and Māyā [in the Tantra Tantra
tantrisme
tantra
tantrismo
tantrism
] become one and coextensive.

[38] The Vedāntin seeks to preserve the integrity intégrité
integridade
integridad
integrity
innocence
inocência
innocentia
of the absolute by safeguarding it from all possible predication. The Śaiva defends the absolute status of the absolute by ensuring that it is in every way Weg
chemin
caminho
way
camino
self Selbst
soi-même
Soi
si mesmo
Self
si mismo
A non-personal, all-inclusive awareness.
-subsistent (svatantra) and all-embracing (pūrna). The integral nature of the absolute allows for the existence Existenz
existence
exister
existentia
existência
existencia
bios
of the world of objectively perceivable phenomena along with the pure subjectivity subjectivité
objectivité
subjetividade
objetividade
subjectividad
objectividad
subjectivity
objectivity
Subjektivität
Objektivität
of consciousness Gewissen
conscience
consciência
conciencia
consciencia
Bewusstsein
Bewußtsein
consciencidade
consciousness
conscient
purusârtha
samvid
bodha
cit
chit
. The two represent opposite polarities of a single reality. Of these two, objectivity is insignificant (tuccha) with respect to the ultimacy (paramārthatva) of the subject sujet
objet
sujeito
objeto
subject
object
Subjekt
Objekt
. It is the sphere of negation Negieren
Negation
negação
negating
wu-nien
, in which objectivity presents itself as a void vide
vazio
void
vacuité
emptyness
empty
śūnyatā
shunyata
shûnya
shunya
śūnya
VOIR néant
(sūnya) in relation Beziehung
Bezug
Verhältnis
Weiter-reden 
relation
relação
relación
rapport
to the fullness of the subject. Thus it appears in some Kashmiri Śaiva works that objectivity is said to be false with respect to the ultimate reality of absolute consciousness. What is meant, however, is that nothing Nichts
néant
nada
nothing
VOIRE vide
can exist apart from the absolute ; not merely in the sense that only the absolute exists, but also that nothing exists separated from it. All things are as if nothing in themselves apart from the absolute in this sense alone—it does not mean that they do not exist. The world, in other words, represents a level of manifestation Offenbarkeit
manifestação
manifestation
manifestación
Bekundungsschichten
within the absolute which in the process of its emanation emanação
émanation
emanación
emanation
must, at a certain stage, radically contrast one aspect forme
eidos
eîdos
aspecto
perfil
aspect
of its nature with another to appear as the duality and multiplicity Vielfalt
Mannigfaltigkeit
multiplicité
multiplicidade
multiplicidad
multiple
múltiplo
multiplicity
dez mil
ten thousand
dix mille
of manifestation. The One L'Un
hen
hén
Uno
the One
is not any one thing because it is all things ; excluding nothing from its omniformity, it cannot be defined in any other way than as the Supremely Real (paramārtha).

The Real is, from this point of view, the All (nikhila Ganze
Ganzheit
Ganzsein
Ganzseinkönnen 
le tout
totalité
être-tout
pouvoir-être-tout
intégralité
entièreté
o todo
totalidade
ser-todo
ser-um-todo
nikhila
totality
). It is the pure absolute because nothing stands outside it which can in any way qualify its absoluteness ; on this point at least, Śaiva and Vedāntin are in agreement Wachseinlassen
deixar-acordar
harmonia
harmonie
harmonía
harmony
accord
acordo
concordance
concordância
concórdia
agreement
. It is the Śaiva’s approach to establishing the absoluteness of the absolute which differs from the Vedānta Vedānta
Vedanta
Vedânta
Védânta
. The Śaiva method is one of an ever widening inclusion of phenomena mistakenly thought to be outside the absolute. The Vedāntin, on the other hand, seeks to understand verstehen
entendre
comprendre
entender
compreender
comprender
understand
the nature of the absolute by excluding (niseciha) every element of experience which does not conform to the criterion of absoluteness, until all that remains is the unqualified Brahman. The Śaiva’s approach is one of affirmation and the Vedāntin’s one of negation. They arrive at the absolute from opposite directions direction
direção
dirección
directions
direções
direcciones
.


Voir en ligne : MARK DYCZKOWSKI