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Dyczkowski : Shaiva Idealism

samedi 10 mars 2018

honnêteté
honestidade
honesty
honneur
honra
honradez
honor
honour
retitude
retidão

Interiority innen
intérieur
interior
inner
außen
aussen
extérieur
exterior
outer
Innenseins
être intérieur
ser interior
interiority
antaratva
(antaratva) is the keynote of both Kashmiri Śaiva Śivaïsme du Kaśmïr
Shivaïsme du Cachemire
Xivaísmo de Caxemira
Shivaismo de Caxemira
Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmiri Śaiva
metaphysics Metaphysik
métaphysique
metafísica
metaphysics
and practice : it is a ‘doctrine doctrine
doutrina
canon
cânone
which maintains that everything is internal’ (antarārthavāda). Everything, according to this view, resides within one absolute Absolu
Absoluto
Absolute
Absoluteness
Bhairava
Paramaśiva
consciousness Gewissen
conscience
consciência
conciencia
consciencia
Bewusstsein
Bewußtsein
consciencidade
consciousness
conscient
purusârtha
samvid
bodha
cit
chit
. It is the great abode of the universe Univers
Universo
Universe
. Full (pūrna) of all things, it sustains them all and embraces them within its infinite Unendlichkeit
unendlich
Infinito
Infini
Infinite
Infinité
, all-pervasive nature nature
physis
phusis
phúsis
natura
natureza
naturaleza
. Utpaladeva Utpaladeva
Utp
Utpala
Utpaladeva (« Seigneur du Lotus Bleu ») ou Utpalācārya (Xe siècle), philosophe shivaïte (śaivasiddhānta) du Cachemire, élève de Somānanda et maître de Abhinavagupta.
writes :

O Lord, some, greatly troubled, move perplexed (bhramanti) within themselves while others, well established [in themselves], wander in that which is their own Self Selbst
soi-même
Soi
si mesmo
Self
si mismo
A non-personal, all-inclusive awareness.
alone.

All events are consciously experienced happenings. According to Somānanda, only that which hypothetically exists outside consciousness can be said to be non-existent (avastu) and hence false. Daily life Leben
vie
vida
life
zoe
carried [47] on without knowledge connaissance
gnosis
intuition intellectuelle
gnôsis
connaître
conhecer
gnose
knowledge
know
conocer
conocimiento
conhecimento
jñāna
jnāna
jnana
that everything is manifest within consciousness is illusory or unreal in that sense alone. Things are more real Bestand
Grundbestand
Realität 
réalité
realité fondamentale
réalité subsistante
real
réel
realidad
realidade
reality
or more tangibly experienced according to their own essential nature (svabhāva) to the degree in which we recognise that they are appearances (ābhāsa) within absolute consciousness. As Jayaratha says :

Just as images manifest in a mirror, for example, are essentially mere appearances, so too are [phenomena] manifest within consciousness. Thus, beause they are external, [phenomena] have no being Seiende
Seiendes
Seienden
l'étant
étants
ente
entes
sendo
beings
being
(sattva Sein
Seyn
l’être
estre
o ser
seer
the being
be-ing
el ser
esse
sattva
sattā
) of their own. The Lord says this [not with the intention of saying anything about the nature of things] but in order to raise the level of consciousness of those people who are attached to outer things ; thus everything in this sense is essentially a mere appearance Erscheinung
apparition
manifestação
aparecimento
apariencia
appearance
Erscheinende
aparição
. [Knowing this], in order to quell the delusion of duality dualité
dyade
duality
dualidad
dualidade
dois
two
deux
, one should not be attached to anything external.

The ultimate experience is the realisation that everything is contained within consciousness. We can discover this in two ways. Either we merge the external world into the inner subject sujet
objet
sujeito
objeto
subject
object
Subjekt
Objekt
, or we look upon the outer as a gross form of the inner. In these two ways we come to recognise that all things reside within our own consciousness just as consciousness resides within them.

This all-embracing inwardness is only possible if there is an essential identity Identität
identité
identidade
identity
identidad
pratyabhijnā
pratyabhijñā
reconnaissance
reconhecimento
between the universe and consciousness. The events which constitute the universe are always internal events happening within consciousness because their essential nature is consciousness itself. We can only account for the fact that things appear if there is an essential identity between consciousness and the object perceived. If a physical object were really totally material matière
matéria
matter
ύλη
hyle
material
matériel
materialidade
matérialité
materiality
materialidad
, that is, part of a reality independent of, and external to, consciousness, it could never be experienced. Abhinava Abhinavagupta
Abhinava
AG
Abh
Abhinavagupta (950-1020), maître du shivaïsme du Cachemire, aussi maître en yoga, tantra, poétique, dramaturgie.
says :

The existence Existenz
existence
exister
existentia
existência
existencia
bios
or non-existence of phenomena within the domain of the empirical (iha) cannot be established unless they rest within consciousness. In fact, phenomena which rest within consciousness are apparent (prakāśamāna). And the fact of their appearing is itself their oneness (abhecla) with consciousness because consciousness is nothing Nichts
néant
nada
nothing
VOIRE vide
but the fact of appearing (prakāśa Licht
lumière
luz
light
phos
prakāśa
prakasha
). If one were to say that they were separate from the light of [that consciousness] and that they appeared [it would be tantamount to saying that] ‘blue’ is separate from its own nature. However, [insofar as it appears and is known as such] one says : ‘this is blue’. Thus, in this sense, [phenomena] rest in consciousness ; they are not separate from consciousness.


Voir en ligne : MARK DYCZKOWSKI

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