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Accueil > Tradition hindoue > Coomaraswamy : Spectator

Coomaraswamy : Spectator

samedi 17 mars 2018

honnêteté
honestidade
honesty
honneur
honra
honradez
honor
honour
retitude
retidão

Conceive that the right droite
direita
right
lines of vision by which the Spectator spéctateur
espectador
spectator
témoin
testemunha
witness
is linked to each separated performer, and along which each performer might look upward (inward) to the Spectator if only his powers of vision sufficed, are lines of force, or the strings by which the puppet marionnette
marionete
marioneta
marionette
puppet
boneco
toy
fantoche
títere
-master moves the puppets for himself (who is the whole audience). Each of the performing puppets is convinced of its own independent existence Existenz
existence
exister
existentia
existência
existencia
bios
and of itself as one amongst others, which it sees in its own immediate environment and which it distinguishes by name, appearance Erscheinung
apparition
manifestação
aparecimento
apariencia
appearance
Erscheinende
aparição
, and behavior. The Spectator does not, and cannot, see the performers as they see themselves, imperfectly, but he knows the being Sein
Seyn
l’être
estre
o ser
seer
the being
be-ing
el ser
esse
sattva
sattā
of each one of them as it really is—that is to say, not merely as effective in a given es gibt
« il y a »
dar-se
haver-se
Gegebenen
la donnée
o dado
dação
given
Gegebenheit
donation
datidade
givenness
gift
local position, but simultaneously at every point along the line of visual force by which the puppet is connected with himself, and primarily at that point at which all lines converge and where the being Seiende
Seiendes
Seienden
l'étant
étants
ente
entes
sendo
beings
being
of all things coincides with being in itself. There the being of the puppet subsists as an eternal reason dianoia
la raison
raison discursive
reason
razão
razón
in the eternal intellect noûs
Vermeinen
notar
intellect
intelecto
νούς
buddhi
buddhih
VIDE intelligence
—otherwise called the Supernal Sun, the Light Licht
lumière
luz
light
phos
prakāśa
prakasha
of lights, Spirit esprit
espírito
spirit
mente
mind
manas
mental
and Truth aletheia
alêtheia
veritas
vérité
truth
verdad
verdade
Wahrheit
.

Suppose now that the Spectator goes to sleep sommeil
sleep
état de sommeil
estado de sono
sleep state
 : when he closes his eyes the universe Univers
Universo
Universe
disappears, to reappear only when he opens them again. The opening of eyes (“Let there be light”) is called in religion Religion
religion
religião
religión
the act action
praxis
agir
atuar
ação
act
acción
prattein
of creation Création
Criação
criação
creation
creación
, but in metaphysics Metaphysik
métaphysique
metafísica
metaphysics
it is called manifestation Offenbarkeit
manifestação
manifestation
manifestación
Bekundungsschichten
, utterance, or spiration (to shine, to utter, and to blow being one and the same thing in divinis)·, the closing of eyes is called in religion the “end of the world,” but in metaphysics it is called concealment, silence silence
silêncio
silencio
discrétion
sobriété
discrição
sobriedade
discretion
sobriety
sobriedad
, or despiration. For us, then, there is an alternation or evolution evolução
évolution
evolution
evolución
and involution. But for the central Spectator there is no succession of events. He is always awake despertar
éveil
awake
awakening
despiertar
Bodhi
and always asleep ; unlike the sailor who sometimes sits and thinks and sometimes does not think denken
pensar
penser
think
pensamento
pensée
pensamiento
thinking
, our Spectator sits and thinks, and does not think, nowever.

A picture has been drawn of the cosmos Kosmologie
cosmologie
cosmologia
cosmología
cosmology
cosmo
cosmos
kosmos
and its overseeing “Eye.” I have only omitted to say that the Held is divided by concentric fences which may conveniently, although not necessarily, be thought of as twenty-one in number Zahl
nombre
número
number
nombres
números
numbers
. The Spectator is thus at the twenty-first remove from the outermost fence bv which our present environment is defined. Each player’s or groundling’s performance is confined to the possibilities that are represented by the space Raum
Räumlichkeit
räumlich
espace
espacialité
espaço
espacialidade
espacial
espacio
espacialidad
space
spaciality
spatial
between two dualité
dyade
duality
dualidad
dualidade
dois
two
deux
fences. There he is born and there he dies. Let us consider this born being, So-and-so, as he is in himself and as he believes himself to be—“an animal Tier
animal
zoon
Tierheit
animalidade
, reasoning and mortal ; that I know connaissance
gnosis
intuition intellectuelle
gnôsis
connaître
conhecer
gnose
knowledge
know
conocer
conocimiento
conhecimento
jñāna
jnāna
jnana
, and that I confess myself to be,” as Boethius expresses it. So-and-so does not conceive that he can move to and fro in time as he will, but knows that he is getting older every day, whether he likes it or not. On the other hand, he does conceive that in some other respects he can do what he likes, so far as this is not prevented by his environment—for example, by a stone wall, or a policeman, or contemporary mores. He does not realize that this environment of which he is a part, and from which he cannot except himself, is a causally determined environment ; that it does what it does because of what has been done. He does not realize that he is what he is and does what he does because others before him have been what they were and have done what they did, and all this without any conceivable beginning. He is quite literally a creature Einzelnhet
singularité
singularidade
singularity
singularidad
individuality
individualidade
individualidad
individuation
individuação
individu
indivíduo
individuum
individual
vereinzelt
isolé
Vereinzeltung
isolement
Vereinzelung
esseulement
singularização
créature
criatura
creature
personne
pessoa
person
of circumstances, an automaton, whose behavior could have been foreseen and wholly explained by an adequate knowledge of past causes, now represented by the nature nature
physis
phusis
phúsis
natura
natureza
naturaleza
of things—his own nature included. This is the well-known doctrine doctrine
doutrina
canon
cânone
of karma karma
kamma
karmma
, a doctrine of inherent fatality, which is stated as follows by the Bhagavad Gītā, xviii.20, “Bound by the working (karma) of a nature that is born in thee and is thine own, even that which thou desirest not to do thou doest willy-nilly.” So-and-so is nothing Nichts
néant
nada
nothing
VOIRE vide
but one link in a causal chain of which we cannot imagine a beginning or an end. There is nothing here that the most pronounced determinist can disagree with. The metaphysician—who is not, like the determinist, a “nothing-morist” (nãstiha) —merely points out at this stage that only the working of life Leben
vie
vida
life
zoe
, the manner of its perpetuation, can thus be causally explained ; that the existence of a chain of causes presumes the logically prior possibility of this existence— in other words, presumes a first cause causa
cause
aitia
aitía
aition
which cannot be thought of as one amongst other mediate causes, whether in place Ort
lieu
lugar
location
locus
place
or time.


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