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Skora : Tantrāloka

vendredi 20 avril 2018

honnêteté
honestidade
honesty
honneur
honra
honradez
honor
honour
retitude
retidão

The Reality Bestand
Grundbestand
Realität 
réalité
realité fondamentale
réalité subsistante
real
réel
realidad
realidade
reality
-Text-Light Licht
lumière
luz
light
phos
prakāśa
prakasha
[
T.Ā.
T.A.
Tantrāloka
Tantraloka
TANTRĀLOKA D’ABHINAVAGUPTA
] is AG Abhinavagupta
Abhinava
AG
Abh
Abhinavagupta (950-1020), maître du shivaïsme du Cachemire, aussi maître en yoga, tantra, poétique, dramaturgie.
’s encyclopedic, detailed exposition of all tantric Śaiva metaphysical discourses and yogic and ritual practices as they existed in his time ; at the same time it is an attempt to appropriate the Krama Kālī shakti
kālī
kali
l'Énergie
cult and all other heterodox traditions. To effect this, he reinterprets and uses as his authoritative umbrella another text, entitled Victory of the Garlanded Goddess Tantra Tantra
tantrisme
tantra
tantrismo
tantrism
(hereafter MVT). [1]

In the 37th chapter of his work, Abhinavagupta states the purpose Ende
la fin
o final
o fim
el fin
finalité
finalidade
finalidad
the end
the goal
purpose
propósito
telos
télos
meta
of the Reality-Text-Light : [2]

[to reveal] the truth aletheia
alêtheia
veritas
vérité
truth
verdad
verdade
Wahrheit
of the tantras, according to logic lógica
logique
logic
Logik
tarka-vidyā
nyāya
nyaya
and tradition diadosis
tradition
tradição
tradición
 ; guided by the light that emanates from (the Reality-Text-Light)... the devoted will be able to easily orient themselves in the rituals [that lead to liberation délivrance
libération
liberação
liberation
liberación
moksha
mokṣa
].

The term tantra, Gnoli further notes, refers to various types of texts, mostly ritualistic, either extra-orthodox or anti-orthodox, written by unknown authors beginning from approximately the first centuries c.e. [3] These arose from various schools of thought, not only Śaivite, but also Vaişnavite and Buddhist. They were similar in claiming that they were written in an age of decay to help provide a more direct way Weg
chemin
caminho
way
camino
towards acquiring superhuman powers and liberation. The tantras that AG elucidated were those that, according to AG, emanated from Śiva Shiva
Śiva
le Seigneur
Himself and promised liberation. These revelations contained the very stuff of Siva, emitted by Siva. Thus, it is not enough to say that they were revealed by Śiva. For AG, they were the very self Selbst
soi-même
Soi
si mesmo
Self
si mismo
A non-personal, all-inclusive awareness.
-revelations of Śiva himself ; they were Śiva.

This leads us to ask what precisely the term tantrāloka meant for AG. The literal meaning signification
significação
sentido
sens
meaning
raison d'être
of the term tantra is "extension" or "warp on a loom." [4] The term may be applied to reality itself, a reality that is extensive or whose essence essence
ousía
ousia
essência
essentia
esencia
essence
extends itself, continually repeating itself on different levels. (One might think denken
pensar
penser
think
pensamento
pensée
pensamiento
thinking
here of a great Mandelbrot set.) Significantly, the term may also refer to a text, in every sense of that notion, that is, "text" not only as a body Körper
corpo
corps
cuerpo
body
Deha
of words, but as something that is woven or con-structed and containing a deep structure Struktur
structure
estrutura
struktural
structural
estrutural
. Further, the various meanings of tantra, floating around two dualité
dyade
duality
dualidad
dualidade
dois
two
deux
lod, "reality," and "text" come together in AG’s vision of tantra. For Abhinavagupta, Reality is made up of layers upon layers of consciousness Gewissen
conscience
consciência
conciencia
consciencia
Bewusstsein
Bewußtsein
consciencidade
consciousness
conscient
purusârtha
samvid
bodha
cit
chit
. In other words, Reality is deep, it is text-ured ; Reality is one great text-ile consisting of the warp and woof of consciousness ; or quite simply Reality is a Text. This is reflected in the fact that the Godhead divin
divinité
divino
divindade
divindad
divine
divinity
Godhead
itself is called by AG "Mass of Sounds ;" the Godhead continually emits these sounds that condense gradually to give rise to the universe Univers
Universo
Universe
of objects and the universe of meaning. For Abhinavagupta, the universe is meaningful to us precisely because it emanates from God Gott
Dieu
Deus
God
Dios
theos
 ; life Leben
vie
vida
life
zoe
is meaningful when everything comes together for us, when through receiving sounds from [8] others we are pointed in the right droite
direita
right
direction direction
direção
dirección
directions
direções
direcciones
, when we remember where everything came from. Thus when the MVT referred to itself as a "tantra" it meant that it was transmitting the primordial revelation emanating from Siva in no less than 35 million ślokas. [5] The term tantra also refers to the tradition of which AG was a part. Thus, some of the connotations of tantra that AG has in mind esprit
espírito
spirit
mente
mind
manas
mental
are : "extension," "emission," "transmission," "text," and "reality." For AG, therefore, tantra refers to a text that embodied, emitted, and transmitted an extensive reality. Any borderline between reality and text was obliterated for AG. Thus, I have translated the term tantra as Reality-Text and the term tantrāloka as the Reality-Text-Light. I assume that this latter term carries all the following meanings : "Light-that-belongs-to-the-Reality-Text," "Light-that-shines-on-the-Reality-Text," "Light-that-is-the-Reality-Text," "Light-that-arises-from-the-Reality-Text," and so on.


Voir en ligne : CONSCIOUSNESS OF CONSCIOUSNESS : REFLEXIVE AWARENESS IN THE TRIKA ŚAIVISM OF ABHINAVAGUPTA


[1Alexis Sanderson, "Abhinavagupta," in Encyclopedia of Religion, vol. 1, p. 8 ; and Teun Goudriaan, "Hindu Tantric and Sākta Literature," in Hindu Tantric and Śãkta Literature (History of Indian Literature, edited by Jan Gonda, vol. 2, fasc. 2), by Teun Goudriaan and Sanjukta Gupta (Wiesbaden : Otto Harrassowitz, 1981), p. 163.

[2TĀ 37.83 : noted and translated by Raniero Gnoli, Luce delle Sacre Scritture (Tantrāloka), Classici delle Religioni, sezione prima, Le religioni orientali (Turin : Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1972), p. 12. What follows here is my translation of Gnoli’s Italian translation.

[3In most of this paragraph, I am following Gnoli, LDSS, pp. 12-13.

[4See Teun Goudriaan, "Introduction, History and Philosophy," in Hindu Tantrism, by Sanjukta Gupta, et. al. (Leiden : E.J. Brill, 1979), p. 5.

[5Goudriaan, "Hindu Tantric Literature in Sanskrit," p. 7, n. 31, with reference to MVT 1.9.

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