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Janis Esots : Sadra on wujud

mardi 15 mai 2018

honnêteté
honestidade
honesty
honneur
honra
honradez
honor
honour
retitude
retidão

The Arabic word Wort
mot
palavra
palabra
word
Worte
rema
parole
mot
mots
vāk
vāc
wujūd Unverborgenheit
hors-retrait
découverte
desencobrimento
unconcealment
Entborgenheit
wujud
wujūd
découvrir
literary means richesse
abondance
riqueza
abundância
wealth
prospérité
Artha
moyens
means
meios
‘finding’ (which presupposes the presence Anwesenheit
présence
parousia
presença
presence
parusía
of the ‘finder’ (wājid) and the ‘found’ (mawjūd)). If taken as a philosophical term, wujūd means ‘being Seiende
Seiendes
Seienden
l'étant
étants
ente
entes
sendo
beings
being
/ existence Existenz
existence
exister
existentia
existência
existencia
bios
’. The Peripatetic first philosophy Philosophie
philosophy
filosofia
filosofía
φιλοσοφία
philosophia
or metaphysics Metaphysik
métaphysique
metafísica
metaphysics
traditionally dealt with the mawjūd (‘existent’) in so far as it is considered as mawjūd (‘existent’), its reality Bestand
Grundbestand
Realität 
réalité
realité fondamentale
réalité subsistante
real
réel
realidad
realidade
reality
, states and properties. The seventeenth century Iranian philosopher Sadr al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī, better known as Mullā Sadrā Sadra
Sadrā
Sadrâ
Mulla Sadra
Mullā Sadrā
Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī, ou Mulla Sadrā ou Molla Sadra, Mollasadra ou Sadr-ol-Mote’allehin (1571/72 - 1635/36), philosophe iranien, chiite duodécimaine.
(979-80/1571-2 - 1050/1640), however, put forward a thesis that what exists primarily and in the actual fact, is the wujūd (‘existence’) itself. What else there exists apart from the existence, exists through the latter. Therefore, according to Sadrā, philosophy must deal primarily with the wujūd, not with the mawjūd.

On the other hand, if taken in its mystical sense, the term wujūd refers to a certain intuition intuition
intuitio
intuitus
intuição
intuición
- that of “finding” the Real (i.e., the Absolute Absolu
Absoluto
Absolute
Absoluteness
Bhairava
Paramaśiva
/ Nondelimited Reality) behind the veil verhüllen 
voiler
velar
ocultar
veil
conceal
voilemente
obnubilation
vilaya
tirodhana
of phenomena. Depending on the preparedness of the mystic mysticisme
misticismo
mysticism
μυστικός
mystikos
místico
místicos
mystic
mystique
, this intuition can be divided into different degrees. Even more importantly, the habit of finding - i.e., the mystical intuition - can be developed by a number Zahl
nombre
número
number
nombres
números
numbers
of techniques. Thus, to a Sufi mystic, teaching about wujūd is a teaching about mystical intuition and its gradual development.

Is it possible to synthesize the philosophical and mystical understanding Verständnis
compreensão
entendimento
compréhension
entente
comprensión
understanding
of wujūd ? If yes, can equilibrium between the mystic and philosophical approaches be maintained or, by necessity Notwendigkeit
nécessité
necessidade
necesidad
necessity
besoin
need
ananke
, one of them is destined to gain the upper hand in such a synthesis ? Sadrā apparently believed that his “transcendent wisdom sophia
sagesse
sabedoria
wisdom
sabedoría
σοφία
Sage
Sábio
” (al-hikma al-muta‘āliyya) represents such a harmonious synthesis. In my dissertation, I try to establish to what degree such a claim is justified.

I assert that Sadrā must be qualified as a thinker of the Platonic trend (more precisely, as a follower of Plotinus Plotin
Plotino
Plotinus
Plotin (205-270), philosophe auteur des Ennéades, fondateur de la pensée néoplatonicienne
and Suhrawardī), who attempted to integrate his pivotal principle Principe
arche
arkhê
princípio
Princípio
Principio
Principle
- that of analogical gradation of existence (tashkīk al-wujūd) (which he borrowed from Suhrawardī) with certain Sufi teachings, in particular those of the self Selbst
soi-même
Soi
si mesmo
Self
si mismo
A non-personal, all-inclusive awareness.
-disclosure and entification of the Real and the new creation Création
Criação
criação
creation
creación
of the world in every instant. The integration was achieved by Sadrā on the level of theoretical speculation, without attempting to penetrate to the heart coeur
kardia
cœur
coração
coración
heart
hŗdaya
of the metaphysical intuition that underlies the teachings of theoretical Sufi mysticism as represented by Ibn ‘Arabī school (namely, that of the gradual self-disclosure of the Real). Despite his sympathy to the teachings of Ibn ‘Arabī and his followers, he remained an outsider in respect to the Sufi tradition diadosis
tradition
tradição
tradición
, who appropriated certain minor parts of the Akbarian doctrine doctrine
doutrina
canon
cânone
for his own Ishrāqī agenda.


Voir en ligne : MULLĀ SADRĀ’S TEACHING ON WUJŪD